Assume you’re writing some reports in your application. You’ve just created the third controller covering some kind of reporting and it seems to be, that all the three controllers have a very similar code, modulo type passed as the entity type to your NH ISession.QueryOver() or another data source. It seems that, if the method creating report base was generic, it could be used in all the cases. You want to extract it, make it clearer and to stop repeating yourself. What would you do?
The very first thing is to extract method in each of the controllers. Now they seem almost the same. A place is needed where the method can be easily moved. How about a super type? Let’s create a controller, call it in a fashionable way, for instance: ReportControllerBase, and move the method in there. Now you can easily remove the methods in the deriving controllers. Yeah! It’s reusable, everyone writing his/her report can derive from the ReportControllerBase and use its methods to speed up his/her task.
The very first step is exactly the same: the extract method must be done, to see the common code. Once it’s done, you notice that the whole method has only a few dependencies which can be easily pushed to parameters, for instance: isession, the entity type passed to query, the value used in some complex where clause, etc. You change all the field and properties usages to parameters which allows this method to be static. You create a static method and turn it into an extension method of a session. The refactorization is done, you can easily call this method in all the controllers, by simply calling an extension onto a session.
What’s the difference and why composition should be preferred
If you use C# or Java you should always be aware of one limitation: you can derive from only one type. Spending this ‘once in a lifetime’ for a simple functionality extraction, for me – that’s the wrong way. Using composition, and deriving only when you truly see that one type is another type, that’s the right way to go. In the next post I’ll write about ASP MVC Detached Actions, a simple mechanism you can use, to derive your controllers only, when it is needed and delegating common actions, without it.
A few days ago I watched a nice presentation published by Infoq called Simplicity Architect which made me think one more about design decisions I’ve been making through the last one year. Dan North, which was the speaker remind of the major problem every architect, I’d say, designer has. The problem is complexity lurking in the dark corners of each solution. I can remember times when from-zero-to-working-example took my team more than one month because of the db creation, design, and other stuff which you can qualify as things, which your business don’t understand. During the very last startup, it took me only 2 hours to provide the very basic set of functionalities with viewing and filtering a list of entities, editing them and so on. I did use a few tools (NHibernate, log4net, Unity and my infrastructure part injecting it all in MVC in my way), but it was only 2 hours to have a working example and it was _simple_ in terms of design. I did like it as the business owner did.
Hope you don’t get too complex either.
I’ve been working on a few quite big projects recently. The first I was dropped into was designed a few months before my arrival and had the solution consisting of almost 60 projects. The references were cascading, with each project having all the previous referenced. The web project depended on all of the projects, and had nothing in common with terms like dependency injection, ORM, best practices. All the data access code was written with using SqlCommands with caching thrown in multiple places. The same with other blocks you can imagine such as validation, logging, gathering statistics, etc. Reviewing the code made me think about NIH syndrome.
The second project was designed to handle a lot of stuff, for instance lifetime management (a very special case) and very domain specific workflows. The design was done in 80% when I entered the project. We tried to write not much code, using already provided frameworks for different purposes like: NHibernate, log4net, NServiceBus, Irony parser (for domain specific language). Then the first version was established, the solution had 16 projects. Two weeks ago I made a major refactorization, reducing a few service and code-based (yet another abstraction) boundaries, creating a more integrated, yet _not_more_ coupled system. The final solution was performing better and had much simpler deployment. It consisted of 11 projects.
The very last solution consisted of 6 projects:
- Web (having reference to NHibernate and Model)
- Web.Config (infrastructure stuff, all the DI registrations, referencing all libraries and setting up controller factory in ControllerBuilder and default ModelBinder, infrastructure service implementations)
- Model (entities, factories, services, types – like email, domain events and their handlers)
- Model.Impl (implementation of interfaces from Model split in the Model’s manner)
- Model.Persistence (all the NH event listeners, Fluent NH mappings, Solr services)
- Model.Presentation (simple denormalized readonly objects to be used for queries result, possibly with Solr)
Do my solutions become to minimal? As far as the last solution is being built it does not seem so. The responsibilities are clean and all can be easily put into this separation. How do you find it? Any ideas?